Illinois_Sinkhole_Points

Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Illinois State Geological Survey, Donald Luman and Samuel Panno, ISGS Affiliate
Publication_Date: 20201231
Title: Illinois_Sinkhole_Points
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
Description:
Abstract:
Karst is a geologically and hydrologically integrated or interconnected and self-organizing network of landforms and subsurface large-scale, secondary porosity created by a combination of fractured carbonate bedrock, the movement of water into and through the rock body as part of the hydrologic cycle, and physical and chemical weathering. Fractured and creviced karst aquifers, bedrock springs, cover-collapse sinkholes, solution-enlarged crevices, and branchwork/network caves are among the defining features of a karst terrain. Karst terrain is present throughout the world, and groundwater from karst aquifers is a major source of drinking water supporting roughly a quarter of the world’s population. Cover-collapse sinkhole are usually considered a principal indicator of karst terrain despite the fact sinkhole features may not necessarily be present in karst areas. Panno et al. (2010) reported that cover-collapse sinkholes found in Illinois occur in areas where carbonate bedrock is overlain by relatively thin unconsolidated sediment (loess and/or glacial till) less than 50 ft thick. Land surface in such regions is vulnerable to accelerated erosion (due, in part, to human activities) and collapse in the vicinity of houses, buildings and related infrastructure. In addition, underlying karst aquifers are susceptible to contamination by surface-borne pollutants due to the presence of cover-collapse sinkholes and to the open nature of these aquifers (e.g., Panno et al. 2008). Karst areas of the state were first mapped by the ISGS in mid-1990s by the ISGS (Weibel and Panno 1997; Panno et al. 1997) through: a) examination of closed contours present on USGS 1:24,000 and 1:62,500-scale topographic maps, b) cave locations collected by the Illinois Natural History Survey, c) use of the statewide 1:500,000-scale bedrock geology compiled by the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) as a guide for the distribution of carbonate bedrock, and d) field work conducted throughout the karst regions of the state. This effort culminated in the 1997 ISGS publication of the Karst Terrain and Carbonate Rocks of Illinois (Weibel and Panno 1997). Twenty-three years later, funding provided by federal and state agencies concluded in the first-time statewide completion of airborne lidar enhanced elevation data, and following extensive QA/QC analyses of the resulting data, the establishment of a county-based accessible database at ISGS of the lidar deliverables. Because of the significant improvement in both the horizontal resolution and vertical accuracy of lidar bare-earth digital elevation data (DEM) models, it was possible to undertake a statewide inventory all cover-collapse sinkholes in Illinois, including those features which are completely camouflaged by dense forest and woodland land cover.Shaded relief imagery derived from county-based lidar bare-earth data models were used as the primary source of information for digitization of each sinkhole feature. Because many nonkarst-related depressional areas can appear similar to or indistinguishable from cover-collapse sinkholes on lidar elevation data, ancillary GIS databases were employed during the digitizing for making interpretative decisions whether depressions are in fact naturally-formed, cover-collapse sinkholes including the following: 1) statewide 1:500,000-scale bedrock geology map layer to define generalized areas of underlying carbonate bedrock; 2) U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resource Data System (MRDS) digitized point locations of known mine sites in Illinois; 3) Sinkhole Areas of Illinois GIS dataset showing generalized areas cover-collapse sinkholes interpreted in 1997 from a combination of various scales of USGS topographic maps and field work; and 4) ISGS Illinois Coal Maps depicting active and abandoned mines and their known extents, as points and polygons as well as PDFs depicting the information represented on USGS 1:24,000-scale topographic quadrangle maps. The mining-based datasets were used collaboratively to reduce the likelihood of mistaking surficial mine-related excavations and associated spoil piles within likely areas of naturally-formed sinkholes. Relict, large- and small-scale mining-related excavation features, historic lead-zinc, fluorite, and coal mining sites are prevalent in several northwestern, north-central, and southern Illinois counties. Anthropogenic features were examined and discounted such as dammed ponds with straight and/or elevated boundaries, ditches, culverts and associated spoil piles.Digitization revealed 21,799 cover-collapse sinkholes present within the state, located in 23 of the 102 Illinois counties. Monroe County in the sinkhole plain of southwestern Illinois possesses 10,065 cover-collapse sinkholes, accounting for 46 percent of the total number, the largest and densest distribution of cover-collapse sinkholes within the state. This county is underlain by very pure and readily dissolvable Mississippian-age St. Louis Limestone, which forms the longest caves and largest karst springs in the state. The St. Louis Limestone is the same formation within which the Mammoth Cave system in Kentucky was formed, the world’s longest cave system. Finally, proximity statistics computed from the latitude/longitude locations of the digitized sinkhole points were used to create 138 sinkhole areas.ReferencesPanno, S.V. Luman, D.E., and Devera, J.A., 2020. Chapter 5: Illinois Caves and Karst in Caves and Karst of the Upper Midwest, USA, pp. 155-183, G. A. Brick and E. C. Alexander Jr. (eds.), part of the series Cave and Karst Systems of the World, © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021.Panno, S.V. and C.P. Weibel. 2010. Karst terrane. In Geology of Illinois, Chapter 28, (D.R. Kolata and C.K. Nimz, eds.) University of Illinois. pp. 432-442.Panno, S.V., Weibel, C.P. and Li, W.B., 1997. Karst regions of Illinois. Illinois State Geological Survey Open File Series 1997-2, 42 p.Weibel, C.P. and S.V. Panno, 1997. Karst terrains and carbonate bedrock of Illinois. Illinois State Geological Survey, Illinois Map Series 8, 1:500,000 Scale.
Purpose:
This dataset contains digitized points for cover-collapse, karst sinkhole locations using bare-earth lidar elevation data for the State of Illinois acquired during the leaf-off periods of 2009, 2011-2012, 2014-2015, and 2017-18. Each sinkhole point is assigned a unique identification number, the elevation at the base of the sinkhole feature, the geologic formation in which the sinkhole is developed, the prevailing land cover, the Illinois County name, and the specific latitude/longitude location.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20200101
Ending_Date: 20201231
Currentness_Reference:
The temporal extent of the digitizing of the sinkhole features was from January 1 through December 31, 2020. The temporal extents for acquisition of the primary source, airborne lidar elevation data for the 23 Illinois counties occurred during the leaf-off period years of 2009, 2011-12, 2014-15, and 2017-18. The Illinois counties containing karst sinkhole features, which were included in the digitizing are as follows: Adams, Brown, Calhoun, Carroll, Greene, Hardin, Jackson, Jersey, Jo Daviess, Johnson, Lee, Madison, Massac, Monroe, Ogle, Pike, Pope, Pulaski, Randolph, St. Clair, Union, and Will Counties, Illinois.
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -91.428841
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -88.090649
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.502870
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 37.213843
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: Cover-collapse sinkhole point locations
Theme_Keyword: Lidar elevation data
Theme_Keyword: Environment
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Categories
Theme_Keyword: elevation
Theme_Keyword: environment
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: State of Illinois
Temporal:
Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Temporal_Keyword: 2020
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Although these data and information have been processed successfully on a computer system at the University of Illinois, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the accuracy or utility of the data and information on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. This disclaimer applies both to individual use of the data, and information, and aggregate use with other data and information. It is also strongly recommended that careful attention be paid to the contents of the metadata file associated with these data and information. The University of Illinois shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data and information described and/or contained herein.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: Illinois State Geological Survey
Contact_Person: Donald Luman and Samuel Panno
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 615 East Peabody Drive
City: Champaign
State_or_Province: IL
Postal_Code: 61820-6964
Country: US
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 1-217-244-2179 and 1-217-244-2456
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: luman@illinois.edu, s-panno@illinois.edu
Data_Set_Credit:
Illinois State Geological Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois, Champaign IL 61820, USA.
Native_Data_Set_Environment: Version 6.2 (Build 9200) ; Esri ArcGIS 10.5.1.7333

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
All karst, cover-collapse sinkholes within the geographic area of the 23 Illinois Counties were detected and digitized as point features through direct interpretation of shaded relief images derived from the processing of lidar bare-earth digital elevation model (DEM) data acquired during the leaf-off periods of 2009, 2011-2012, 2014-2015, and 2017-18. Because all depression features are not karst-related, the ISGS statewide bedrock geology GIS data layer was first used to determine if the depression features are situated in bedrock formations known to be conducive to karst feature development, including such features as bedrock crevices, caves, and sinkholes. Additionally, the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resource Data System (MRDS) digitized point locations of known mine sites in Illinois, and the ISGS Illinois Coal Maps depicting active and abandoned mines and their known extents were used during the digitizing. These mining-based GIS datasets were used examined to reduce the likelihood of mistaking surficial mine-related excavations and associated spoil piles within likely areas of naturally-formed sinkholes. Anthropogenic features were also examined and discounted, such as dammed ponds with straight and/or elevated boundaries, ditches, culverts and associated spoil piles.
Completeness_Report:
All karst, cover-collapse sinkholes within the geographic area of the 23 Illinois Counties were detected and digitized as point features through direct interpretation of shaded relief images dervied from the processing of lidar bare-earth digital elevation model (DEM) data acquired during the leaf-off periods of 2009, 2011-2012, 2014-2015, and 2017-18. Because all depression features are not karst-related, the ISGS statewide bedrock geology GIS data layer was first used to determine if the depression features are situated in bedrock formations known to be conducive to karst feature development, including such features as bedrock crevices, caves, and sinkholes. Additionally, the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resource Data System (MRDS) digitized point locations of known mine sites in Illinois, and the ISGS Illinois Coal Maps depicting active and abandoned mines and their known extents were used during the digitizing. These mining-based GIS datasets were used examined to reduce the likelihood of mistaking surficial mine-related excavations and associated spoil piles within likely areas of naturally-formed sinkholes. Anthropogenic features were also examined and discounted, such as dammed ponds with straight and/or elevated boundaries, ditches, culverts and associated spoil piles.
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Illinois State Geological Survey, Donald Luman and Samuel Panno
Title: https://clearinghouse.isgs.illinois.edu/
Online_Linkage:
https://clearinghouse.isgs.illinois.edu/datasets/illinois-sinkhole-points
Source_Scale_Denominator: 3600
Type_of_Source_Media: onLine
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: https://clearinghouse.isgs.illinois.edu/
Source_Contribution:
Generalized Description Example: The lidar data is captured using twin-engine fixed wing aircraft equipped with a lidar measurement system to provide superior accuracy. LiDAR swaths are inspected, aligned to one another and indexed to surface check points. Data points are classified, inspected and breaklines added. Derivative data products are produced for delivery. Acquisition parameters: 1. Scanner - Optech ALTM Gemini 2. Flight Height - 1500 m above mean terrain 3. Swath Width - 32 degrees 4. Sidelap - 60% 5. Nominal Post Spacing - 1.0 m. GPS and IMU processing parameters: 1. Processing Programs and version - Applanix - POSGPS and POSProc, versions 4.4 2. Maximum baseline length - Not greater than 30 km 3. Number of base stations during lidar collection - A minimum of 2 were occupied during any of the lifts to acquire the lidar data 4. Max separation between base stations during lidar collection - 0.12 m 5. IMU processing monitored for consistency and smoothness - Yes Point Cloud Processing: 1. Program and version - Dashmap, version 4.0027 2. Horizontal Datum - NAD83(NSRS2007) 3. Horizontal Coordinates - Illinois State Plane Coordinate System, 1202, West Zone, in US Survey Foot 4. Vertical Datum - NAVD88 5. Geoid Model used to reduce satellite derived elevations to orthometric heights - NGS Geoid03. lidar processing: 1. Processing Programs and versions - TerraSolid TerraScan (version 009.004), TerraModeler (version 009.001 and TerraMatch (version 009.001) and MicroStation (version 08.01.02.15). 2. Point Cloud data is imported to TerraScan in a Microstation V8 (V) CAD environment on a specified 2000 foot by 2000 foot tiling scheme. 3. Analyze the data for overall completeness and consistency. This is to ensure that there are no voids in the data collection. 4. Inspect for calibration errors in the dataset using the TerraMatch software. This is accomplished by sampling the data collected across all flight lines and classify the individual lines to ground. The software will use the ground-classified lines to compute corrections (Heading, Pitch, Roll, and Scale). 5. Orientation corrections (i.e. Calibration corrections) are then applied to the entire dataset. 6. Automatic ground classification is performed using algorithms with customized parameters to best fit the project area. Several areas of varying relief and planimetric features were inspected to verify the final ground surface. 7. Quantum Spatial provided Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QAQC) data for this project. ILDOT captured QA/QC points in multiple land cover categories that were used to test the accuracy of the lidar ground surface. TerraScan's Output Control Report (OCR) was used to compare the QAQC data to the LIDAR data. This routine searches the lidar dataset by X and Y coordinates, finds the closest LIDAR point and compares the vertical (Z) values to the known data collected in the field. Based on the QAQC data, a bias adjustment was determined, and the results were applied to the lidar data. A final OCR was performed with a resulting RMSE of 0.09 feet. 8. Once the automatic processing and the testing of LiDAR is complete, Quantum Spatial reviews the generated bare-earth surface data to insure that proper classification was achieved as part of a Quality Control process. 9. Final deliverables are generated and output to a client specified 2000 ft by 2000 ft tiling scheme. Note: The lidar data are available for public access and download at: https://clearinghouse.isgs.illinois.edu/data/elevation/illinois-height-modernization-ilhmp.

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Vector
Point_and_Vector_Object_Information:
SDTS_Terms_Description:
SDTS_Point_and_Vector_Object_Type: Entity point
Point_and_Vector_Object_Count: 21799

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 8.9831528411952133e-009
Longitude_Resolution: 8.9831528411952133e-009
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal Degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: D North American 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: GRS 1980
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.0
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257222101

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Illinois_Sinkhole_Points
Entity_Type_Definition: The ESRI file Geodatabase Feature Class
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Illinois State Geological Survey
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: FID
Attribute_Definition: Internal feature number.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Esri
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain:
Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: OBJECTID
Attribute_Definition: Internal feature number.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Esri
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain:
Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Shape
Attribute_Definition: Feature geometry.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Esri
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Coordinates defining the features.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Longitude
Attribute_Definition:
Longitude in decimal degrees of the digitized drain location for each sinkhole point.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Illinois State Geological Survey
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Z
Attribute_Definition:
Elevation of each digitized sinkhole drain as determined from the bare-earth lidar using the ArcToolbox Add Surface Information program.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Illinois State Geological Survey
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: ABBREV
Attribute_Definition:
Geologic formation name abbreviation for each digitized sinkhole drain as derived from the ISGS Statewide 1:500,000-scale Bedrock Geology GIS dataset using the ArcToolbox Add Surface Information program.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Illinois State Geological Survey
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: LITHNAME
Attribute_Definition:
Geologic formation name for each digitized sinkhole drain as derived from the ISGS Statewide 1:500,000-scale Bedrock Geology GIS dataset using the ArcToolbox Add Surface Information program.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Illinois State Geological Survey
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: COUNTY_NAM
Attribute_Definition: Illinois County name containing the sinkhole feature.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Illinois State Geological Survey
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: CO_FIPS
Attribute_Definition:
Unique 3-digit US Census Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) number code identifiying each Illinois County.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Illinois State Geological Survey
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: gridcode
Attribute_Definition:
Numeric code denoting dominant land cover type for each digitized sinkhole point as derived from the USDA NASS Cropland Data Layer (CDL) GIS raster dataset using the ArcToolbox Add Surface Information program. The CDL is a product of the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) whose mission is to provide timely, accurate and useful statistics to U.S. agriculture.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Illinois State Geological Survey
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: CLASS_NAME
Attribute_Definition:
Dominant land cover type for each digitized sinkhole point as derived from the USDA NASS Cropland Data Layer (CDL) GIS raster dataset using the ArcToolbox Add Surface Information program. The CDL is a product of the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) whose mission is to provide timely, accurate and useful statistics to U.S. agriculture.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Illinois State Geological Survey
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Latitude
Attribute_Definition:
Latitude in decimal degrees of the digitized drain location of each sinkhole point.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Illinois State Geological Survey
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: ID
Attribute_Definition:
Sequential ID # assigned to each digitized sinkhole point location.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Illinois State Geological Survey

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20210111
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: Illinois State Geological Survey
Contact_Person: Melony Barrett
Contact_Position: Geospatial Applications Developer/GIS Specialist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 615 East Peabody Drive
City: Champaign
State_or_Province: IL
Postal_Code: 61820-6964
Country: US
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 1 217 333 7917
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: mebarret@illinois.edu
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
Although these data and information have been processed successfully on a computer system at the University of Illinois, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the accuracy or utility of the data and information on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. This disclaimer applies both to individual use of the data, and information, and aggregate use with other data and information. It is also strongly recommended that careful attention be paid to the contents of the metadata file associated with these data and information. The University of Illinois shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data and information described and/or contained herein.

Generated by mp version 2.9.12 on Fri Feb 19 15:13:44 2021